The oldest Malay kingdom is accepted as Kedah, the seat of the greater Langkasuka coalition of kingdoms in northern Malaya, which also included Pattani, Beruas (Gangga Negara), Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang. Langkasuka itself for a while became a tribute kingdom of Sriwijaya. Malays also have no problem about their ancestors being mixed Hindu/Buddhist/animist. Well, you can't deny history, can you?
Monday, August 2, 2010
What is this essential Right Action ?
The 3-fold Definition of Right Action: 1: Avoiding all killing and harming of any living being... 2: Abstaining from taking and thus stealing what is not given... 3: Stopping all adultery and all abuse of any sense-pleasure... That is Right Action!
The Characterization of Right Action. The blessed Buddha said: Friends, it is caused by behaviour in conflict with the Dhamma, by reason of immoral behaviour, that some beings here, right at the breakup of the body, after death, reappear lost in states of pain, in an unhappy destination, in the downfall, even in the hells... It is caused by behaviour in harmony with the Dhamma, by reason of moral behaviour, that some beings here, on the breakup of the body, right after death, reappear in a happy destination, even in the divine worlds!!! And which, friends, are the 3 kinds of bodily moral behaviour in harmony with the Dhamma? Here someone, stop all killing of living beings, abstains from injuring living beings; with rod & weapon laid aside, gentle and kind, such one dwells sympathetic towards all living beings. Avoiding the taking of what is not given, one refrains from stealing, what is not freely give. One does not take by way of theft the wealth and property of others, neither in the village nor in the forest. Abandoning abuse of sensual pleasures, such one gives up misuse in sensual pleasures. One does not have intercourse with partners, who are protected by their mother, or father, or mother and father, or brother, or sister, or relatives, who is married, betrothed to another, who are protected by law, in prison, or who are engaged to other side. That is how there are three kinds of bodily moral behaviour in harmony with the Dhamma... Such is Right Action!
Explanation: Primary of these is the ending of intentional killing or destroying of other beings either by physical action or by verbal incitement, ranging from killing eggs of lice and bugs, or causing abortion, to any slaughter of living creatures, including human beings. Restraint from taking, what is not given, means abstaining from taking, with intention to steal, living beings or non-living articles, which have an owner. Removing or appropriating them, without owner's consent, either by physical effort or by inciting another to do so. Restraint from wrong behaviour in sensual pleasures means abstention from any kind of sex, which will cause pain and suffering to others. Examples will be adultery, since this causes the disruption of marriage, rape, intercourse with minors protected by parents, and perversion of others. Included here also are abstention from use of booze, drugs and any kinds of intoxicants, which causes carelessness, and gambling with cards, dice, on horses, teams etc.
Knowing right and wrong action as right and wrong action, is right view. Awareness of presence of right and wrong action, is right awareness. Exchanging wrong action with right action, is right effort... The factors of the Noble 8-fold way mutually enhance each other! Any intentional action - good as bad - determines whether the future will be pleasant or painful...